The main reason of the rise of interest in the study of the domestic abuse specifically among women is the increasing prevalence of the violence in the society. On the basis of the studies conducted related to the area, the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) is one of the concepts that is used to measure the occurrence of the domestic violence in the groups under study. The main traits measured in the studies that are undertaken are the physical violence.
One of the results of a significant study that focuses on the types and the extent of the act of violence that are experienced by the members of the household is presented in Table 1 (Wilt and Olson, 1996). Based on the results of the study that focused on the perpetrators of violence, the husbands are the violators. The area covered by the study is based on the different level of the physical abused that can be experienced by the victim. The intensity of the violence can come to the point that the victim is hit by certain object or a warning to impose harm through the use of different weapons.
These acts of violence can be classified as ‘severe’ violence. On the other hand, the inclusion of less serious acts that can inflict less physical effects is included in the total violence concept (Wilt and Olson, 1996). The different statistical study proved the need for a deeper understanding of the issues related to domestic violence. Results showed that certain percentage of the female population undergo certain level of abuse in the household which can be classified as domestic violence.
Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) of the Department of Justice, from 1973 to 1981 there are 0. 3% to 0. 4% on the record of women that are violated through different forms offenses. On the other hand, during the survey conducted for the period 1987 to 1991 0. 5% CTS was recorded which have undertaken any of the violations such as sexual assault and other forms of crime (Johnson and Kishor, 2005; The Commonwealth Fund, 1999; Wilt and Olson, 1996).
During the period of 1980, a year that can be considered to have a role in the effort against domestic violence specifically those that involve physically abusing women, the United Nations initiated action through the Denmark conference (Bureau of Justice, 2003; Roberts, 2002). The action was perceived necessary due to the increasing prevalence of the crimes that can be related to the household commonly performed by the male against the female partners or the even the children. The initiative of the international organization, UN, resulted into a General Assembly regarding the issue in 1985.
The main focus of the assembly was the women victims of domestic violence. The action that was undertaken by the UN initiated and gives attention to the escalating problem of violence at home, a place that used to be considered to be the refuge every person (Bureau of Justice, 2003). Based on the records provided by the National Center for the State Courts during the period 1993 to 1995, there is an increase of more than 20 percent in the cases related to domestic violence (1996).
This figure can be considered as one of the most significant change achieved at a certain period of reporting. The study was conducted in 32 states within which the said increase was observed in 18 of these states (National Center for the State Courts, 1996). In the increasing effect of the issue in the society, the National Violence Against Women Survey in November 1995 to May 1996, a quarter of the population had an experience at least once in their lifetime inside the household.
The survey also covers certain actions that are classified as domestic violence. Upon the initiation of the actions regarding domestic violence, the UN continued its efforts both in terms for the quest for knowledge and information regarding the issue. In 1995, in the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, 12 critical areas of concern were presented to be able to classify the dangers that are being undertaken by the female population in relation to domestic violence. During the same period, another concerted effort was undertaken in 2001.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination was held to be able to present the Optimal Protocol that can protect the abused women. The said organization allows the advocacy not only of the concerned members of the community against domestic violence but also the victims to fight the violence themselves through cooperation with such groups (Bureau of Justice, 2003; Roberts, 2002). A study that was conducted in 2001 resulted in the determination that 588,490 women, approximately more than 0.
5 million were victims of different forms of violations that are performed by the partners in a domestic setting (Bureau of Justice, 2003). This presents a continuously increasing domestic violence. Thus, continued efforts are required regarding the quest for the resolution of the issue. Through the study that was conducted by the different groups in the local and international community, it was conceived that throughout the cases of domestic violence they are the victims. In fact, there is inexistent percentage of women violators in cases of domestic crimes.
The main advocates of the fight against domestic violence in general is lead by the United Nations along with the different groups such as World Health Organization, UNICEF, the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the UN Population Fund, and the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) (Bureau of Justice, 2003; Roberts, 2002). These are some of the major actions undertaken by different international groups in response to the increasing occurrence of the domestic violence in different countries and most especially in the United States.