Earth Science:
Questions 1 to 20: Select the best answer to each question. Note that a question and its answers may be split across a page  break, so be sure that you have seen the entire question and all the answers before choosing an answer.

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1. The four giant gas planets that are made primarily of lightweight elements are
A. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Neptune.
B. Venus, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
C. Earth, Saturn, Neptune, and Venus.
*D. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

2. The fragment of an asteroid or any interplanetary material is known as a
A. shower material.
B. limestone dignitary satellite.
C. moon.
*D. meteoroid.

3. When two stars are bound together gravitationally and orbit a common mass, they’re known as
A. constellations.
*B. binary stars.
C. meteoroids.
D. galaxies.

4. During solstice, around June 21 each year, people in the northern hemisphere can expect
A. no sunlight.
B. only 1 hour of sunlight.
*C. a long day of sunlight.
D. only 5 hours of sunlight.

5. Dark spots on the photosphere are known as
A. the corona.
*B. sunspots.
C. the chromosphere.
D. solar wind.

6. The four terrestrial planets that have solid, rocky surfaces are
A. Mercury, Jupiter, Saturn, and Mars.B. Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, and Mars.
C. Mars, Venus, Earth, and Jupiter.
*D. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.

7. A constellation is _______ that forms a pattern resembling animals, mythological characters, or objects.
A. a group of meteors
*B. a group of stars
C. an entire galaxy
D. one single planet

8. The study of the universe, including its origin, nature, and evolution is known as
A. geography.
B. meteorology.
C. geology.
*D. cosmology.

9. The passing of the Moon directly between Earth and the Sun is a/an
A. meteor shower.
B. elliptical ocular illusion.
*C. solar eclipse.
D. solar shower.

10. Large groups of galaxy clusters that appear in sheetlike and threadlike shapes are known as
A. local clusters.
B. Milky Way center.
C. large clusters.
*D. superclusters.

11. Which types of telescope use a mirror to bring light to focus?
A. Refracting telescopes
B. Interferometry telescopes
*C. Reflecting telescopes
D. Array telescopes

12. An explosion that destroys the outer portion of a star is known as a
A. supergiant.
*B. supernova.
C. nebula.
D. protostar.

13. With a diameter that’s 11 times larger than Earth’s, _______ is the largest planet.
A. Mars
*B. Jupiter
C. Saturn
D. Venus

14. A basic observation of a star is how bright it appears. This brightness is known as the star’s
*A. apparent magnitude.
B. absolute magnitude.
C. absent magnitude.
D. luminosity.

15. When electromagnetic radiation is arranged to wavelength and frequency, it forms the
A. multiple-vivid spectrum.
*B. electromagnetic spectrum.
C. ecliptic plane.
D. multiple-spectrum vividness.

16. The apparent backward movement of a planet is called
A. eccentricity.
B. heliocentric motion.
*C. retrograde motion.
D. Kepler’s first law of motion.

17. Fusion occurs in the _______ of the Sun, where the pressure and temperature are very high.
A. photosphere
B. chromosphere
C. solar wind
*D. core

18. The cloud of interstellar dust and gas that forms a star is known as a
A. protostar.
B. red giant.
*C. nebula.
D. white dwarf.

19. The photosphere is the innermost layer of the Sun, and it’s also the
A. atmospheric pressure of Jupiter.
B. invisible surface of the Sun.
C. nickname for the outer atmosphere of Earth.
*D. visible surface of the Sun.

20. Edwin Hubble categorized galaxies according to their
A. food supplies.End of exam
B. inhabitants.
*C. shapes.
D. colors.