CLOSED KINEMATIC CHAIN-proximal moves on distal, while distal is stable. Ex) dorsiflexion of ankle, when stand while trying to sit down tibia and fibula moves while distal bones are stable. Ex)push up, pull against the wall, help get up from chair. Synarthrosis-have no movement ex) sutures in the scull Amphiarthrosis-fibrocartilage or cart b/w bones to allow little movem. Ex) pubis, and cart b/w manubrium and sternum.

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Diarthrosis (Synovial)-one joint is concave the other is convex. Synovial fluid inclosed in joint sac and fibrocart and articularcart to cushion joint, worn out joint cause osteoporosis. Have ligament surr the joint to prevent excess movement. Ex) uniaxial joint has 2 collateral lig to prevent lig sprain.Capsule and muscles also prohibit excess movement. Plane Joints-glide, slide or shift but has no axis of rotation (non-axial) translitory. Ex) intercarpal and intertarsal joints. Hinge Joints-motion in 1plain or 1 axis. Strong collateral lig on each side ex) finger

1) Pivot (Trochoid) Joints-b/w axis and atlas or b/w radius and ulna to allow rotation 2) Condyloid Joints-2 plains of motion ex) wrist 3) Saddle (Sellar) Joints-ex)potato chip, sternoclavicular joint 4) Ball and Socket Joints-hip and glenohumeral joint Each joint has one close pack position – when the concave and convex surfaces are snug in fit (highly congruent). This point in the range of motion is the most stable position for that joint. Typically, critical ligaments are at their most taut (can’t be stretched any further) in the close pack position.

An open pack position is when the ligaments are lax and there is potential for joint play. When providing joint mobilization (a therapeutic intervention), the therapist must be sure the joint is in an open pack position. Classical Motion- Movements that produce observable/measurable changes in joint range of motion. May be active or passive. Can be voluntarily controlled Accessory Motion-Movements that accompany classical motions and are essential to normal full range and painless function JOINT PLAY MOTIONS-every joint can be moved passively with the help of external force.

Ex) DIP joint COMPONENT MOTIONS-movement at joint complex. Movement at another bony segment that is part of the larger component. Ex) humerus moves on scapula.  ROLLING/SLIDING (GLIDING)/ SPINNING- Rolling is rotary motion(rocking chair), sliding or gliding is translatory(iceskates on ice), spinning is atlantoaxial CONVEX RULE: When a convex surface moves on a stable concave surface, the slide and roll will be in opposite directions. CONCAVE RULE: When a concave surface moves on a stable convex surface, the slide and roll will be in the same direction.