Toyota Production System (TPS) is the first production model that had been developed and presented after the 2nd World War by two leaders of the Toyota Group: Eiji Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno. TPS is an integrated socio-technical system that comprises its management philosophy and practices. It help Toyota manages equipment, materials, and people in the most efficient manner while ensuring a healthy and safe work environment.
The main objectives of the TPS are to design out overburden and inconsistency, and to eliminate waste. The most significant effects on process value delivery are achieved by designing a process capable of delivering the required results smoothly, by designing out inconsistency. It is also crucial to ensure that the process is as flexible as necessary without stress or overburden since this generates waste. Finally the tactical improvements of waste reduction are very valuable.
TPS has been many companies and industries of Japan copied and applied successfully, contributing to the development of the economy of Japan. Now, many companies in different sectors of work (other then manufacturing) have attempted to adapt some or all of the principles of the TPS to their company. These sectors include construction and health care. The Toyota Production System House. The simple house was used to visually describe the Toyota Production System. All other components are inherited to the system. Examples: Safety, Customer First, Heijunka (Leveled production), etc.
There are different versions of the house, but the core principles remain the same. It starts with the goals of best quality, lowest cost, and shortest lead time-the roof. There are then two outer pillars- Just-In-Time, probably the most visible and highly publicized characteristic of TPS, and Jidoka, which in essence means never letting a defect pass into the next station and freeing people from machines-automation with a human touch. In the center of the system are people. Finally there are various foundational elements, which include the need for standardized, stable, reliable processes, and also Heijunka, which means leveling out the production schedule in both volume and variety.
Production methods. To optimize the production system, Toyota Motor Corporation connects the benefits of the production craft and mass production. This method helps organizations avoid the high costs of previous production methods; it also overcomes the rigid method of current production methods. In addition, they recruit a staff of multi-skills at all levels of the organization and use machines with high flexibility and automation to produce a large multi-product category.
TPS is defined as the economy-production methods (or Lean Production), because it uses less than all of the resources compared to current mass production methods. For example: it uses only half the number of personnel, half the space of production, half the investment in tools, half time to develop a new product and half time of production compared with mass production methods. The biggest difference between the mass production method and TPS is the final goal of the company. The mass production manufacturers just set a sufficient limited target, such as giving a number of acceptable errors products, a maximum level of inventory, and a narrow range of standard products. Meanwhile, the economy-manufacturers put goals more clearly to perfection.
TPS is a technology of comprehensive production management. The basic idea of this system is to maintain a continuous flow of products in the factory and adapt dynamically to changes of demand. Manufacturing products in accordance with the amount needed at the time needed is described by the phrase “Just in time”. For example, in a process of assembling the car should have the necessary accessories at time needed with the necessary quantities. If this concept is aware of the factory, the amount of unnecessary inventory will be deleted entirely, so the factory will not need the creation of warehouses and reduce storage costs.
In the TPS, the workers in the process will have to go to the previous process to obtain the necessary accessories with a number needed at the time of need. Then, work of previous process is only producing enough units to replace what was taken away. .4 Self-control error To ensure that production process is implemented right time, 100% good quality products have to run in the priority production line, and this line must operate rhythmically without interruption.
Therefore, management quality is very important and must exist simultaneously with production activities. Self-control error that is building a mechanism that including means to limit the false mass production in machines and production line. Self-control error system automatically checks the unusual point in the process. Self-control error is a machine with a device installed for stopping automatically. In Toyota’s factories, most machines are automatic, so it can prevent the false mass production and broken down machines will automatically be checked.
The idea of self-control error also extended to the line manually. If there is anything unusual point occurred in the production line, the worker will press the stop button (or pull the cord signal), the line does not stop immediately when the worker press the stop button, rather it continues until it reaches a “fixed position,” it will stop unless the supervisor pulls it again to reset it. Here’s how it works. When the worker sees a problem, he or she notifies the supervisor by pressing a button which illuminates a light on the Andon board.
The supervisor reacts by speeding immediately (within the worker’s job cycle) to the station that is experiencing the problem and makes a set of decisions. The first decision is whether to let the vehicle continue to its “fixed position” at which point the line will stop. That’s because if the line stopped immediately, the work of each worker on the line would have been interrupted, causing quality, safety or other problems. So, the work of every worker along the assembly line is tied together, choreographed to start and stop at the same time.
The electric board (called Andon) is hung where people can see it easily. Electronic board system Andon in TPS plays an important role to help self-control error automatically, and also an typical example of “Toyota visual control system” Supply Chain Management 50 years ago, when Toyota began selling cars to U.S., they were imported completely vehicle from Japan, which were made entirely from Japanese parts. Today, while many other manufacturers in U.S. look overseas for low-cost manufacturing and supply, Toyota cars sold in the U.S. are produced at North American factories.
The term “distribution model” defines the method used to distribute vehicles from the assembly plant to the dealers. There are many variations in the distribution model within the automotive industry. At Toyota, the distribution model is different for various regions around the world. For example, the United States, Europe, and Japan all have different models, and in some cases the models vary within a regional area. Toyota has a set of central core values but allows individual divisions to customize to local conditions, when it comes to supplying to different geographies, different products, or at different times in the product life cycle, the company adapts the design and control of its demand chain so that it has the right demand chain for the right product, in the right place, and at the right time.